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Extracts from Nandini Chemical Journal, Sep 2012

Acrylic Acid market|Chlorosulphonated polyethylene market|Isononanol market
Highlights of Some of the Articles

TALK OF THE MONTH : INDIA’S FUTURE ENERGY SOURCE HAS TO CENTRE ON NATURAL GAS
SPOTLIGHT ON SPECIALITY CHEMICAL - ISONONANOL
CHLOROSULFONATED POLYETHYLENE - PRODUCT PROFILE
ACRYLIC ACID - INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITY
BIO BASED ACRYLIC ACID - RECENT DEVELOPMENTS
FLUIDICS PRINCIPLE TO ENHANCE THE PERFORMANCE OF SOLAR STILL CONDENSER
CHINA’S CAPACITY UTILISATION ISSUES
CHINA’S SOLAR COMPANIES IN DISARRAY
CMM MINING OPPORTUNITIES
OVERSEAS OFF SHORE PROJECT OF RELIANCE INDUSTRIES
GLOBAL HYDROGEN MARKET - FINDINGS OF THE STUDY
LNG EXPORT PLANTS IN USA
ETHANOL PRODUCTION IN USA
A NEW OXIDANT IN THE ATMOSPHERE IDENTIFIED
OTHER FEATURES
OTHER ARTICLES

TALK OF THE MONTH

  INDIA’S FUTURE ENERGY SOURCE
HAS TO CENTRE ON NATURAL GAS

If the country were to maintain GDP growth rate of  around 8% per annum which is the minimum requirement  to sustain the national growth in tune with the expectations of the people, then India’s energy need will increase every year by atleast 10%..  With the present  installed capacity of power generation of around 1,60000 M.W., the country has to step up the power generation at least by 20000 MW every year considering the transmission losses. The question is where would the energy source (fuel) come from to meet such need. .

The country presently produces around 600 million tonnes of coal per annum  and 80 million tonnes of coal per annum are  imported. With no immediate possibility of increasing the indigenous production of coal to any significant extent, it appears that the country’s import of coal would increase to more than 200 million tonnes by 2017.

The present production of crude oil is around 30 million tonnes per annum and import is around 160 million tonnes  per annum.   More than 80% of the Indian requirement of crude oil is now met by import and such import dependence is likely to increase to more than 90% by 2017. The country’s crude oil import will increase to at least 220 million tonnes by 2017 .

With the disappointing performance of natural gas production from the Krishna Godavari  basin, there is no feasibility of significantly increasing the production of natural gas from indigenous sources even by 2017.  Several oil and gas exploration efforts promoted under NELP scheme by Government of India are likely to contribute marginally.  While ONGC Videsh Ltd. (OVL)  has taken steps to acquire oil and gas fields abroad  and has  stepped up exploratory efforts,  such efforts have resulted in the production of 6 million tonnes per annum of crude oil only so far.

Other sources such as wind / solar energy, nuclear power can all add to the energy capacity but not to any significant level.

There are of course, possibilities such as coal bed methane (CBM),  coal mine methane (CMM),  off shore wind energy,  underground coal mining  etc.  but all these projects are still in preliminary stage in India and cannot relieve the energy pressure  in the near future.

The biofuel project such as jatropha has been given up for all practical purposes and the huge possibilities of developing technologies and projects based on algae bio fuel have not been given any serious thoughts by Government of India so far.

The increasing dependence on import of crude oil and coal are likely to reach alarming level in the next few years , with India becoming  increasingly vulnerable to the international supply pressure ,  price fluctuations and international cartel and the Government of India will have no control on such conditions.

What is the way out for the country ? 

Increasing production of shale gas (natural gas)  in North America have brought down the price of natural gas to a significant extent in Americas.  The price of shale gas in North America has already come down to around one third of prevailing international price and with the North American shale gas producers stepping up their export efforts , global natural gas price are likely to stabilize at much lower level  than at present.

Given the above development,there is strong case for India  to  plan for its future energy projects based on natural gas.  The county has to urgently work out its natural gas procurement strategies.

Government’s action plan so far

The Government of India has taken initiative by participating in the scheme for importing natural gas from Turkmenistan by pipeline(TAPI) through  Afghanistan  and  Pakistan.  This is  a forward looking step , though the economics of procuring and transporting natural gas  still have some uncertainties and the project is only in the preliminary stage. The geo political issues may upset the project in future , though one would hope that it would not be so.

Considering the country’s future needs for import of natural gas in large quantity, number of LNG terminals for importing natural gas have to be built up with great urgency.

With two LNG terminals operating in Gujarat and with two more LNG terminals at Debhol and Kochi likely to be operational soon, number of new LNG projects including at Ennore in Chennai  have been announced recently.  But, most of these projects are in conceptual stage at present and unless the government would move with sense of urgency, these projects would be delayed, particularly due to the fact that they involve huge investment and environmental clearances as well.

Indian LNG projects:

Terminal

Partners

Capacity

Supply source

Start up

Existing

Dahej

Petronet LNG (Gail, ONGC, Indian Oil and BPCL (each 12.5%), GDF Suez ADB (5.2%) and private share holders (34.85%)

10 mtpa

Qatar- long term 
(7.5 mtpa)

March 2004

Hazira

Shell (operator, 74%), Total (26%)

3.5 mtpa

Merchant model

April 2005

Under construction

Dabhol

NTPC, GAIL, Indian banks 15  (28.3% each) and the Maharashtra State Electricity Board (15%)

5.5 mtpa 
(1 mtpa initially)

Possible: Algeria, Qatar, Australia, Oman and Abu Dhabi

2010

Kochi

Petronet LNG

2.5 mtpa

1.5 mtpa for 20 years from ExxonMobil’s Gorgon, Australia (2014-15), possibly Qatar, Papua New Guinea

2012

Planned

Dahej exp

Petronet LNG

2.5 mtpa

n.a.

2013

Hazira exp

Shell, Total

6.5 mtpa

n.a.

n.a.

Kochi exp

Petronet LNG

2.5 mtpa

n.a.

2014

Mundra Port

GSPC (75%), 
Adani Group (25%) 16

6.5 mtpa

n.a.

2012

Mangalore

ONGC

5 mtpa

Possibly Oman, Qatar, Africa.

2012

Pipapav Port

EssarGroup, Swan Energy,possibly GSPC Gujarat Pipavav Port Ltd, intends to become a partner

5 mtpa

n.a.

2013

Ennore

TIDCO, IOC

5 mtpa

n.a.

2015

Haldia

Spice Energy

2.5 mtpa

Indonesia .

n.a.

Kandla

Kandla Port Trust, possibly private companies

2.mtpa

n.a.

n.a

Mangalore

MMTC, (Bharat Petroleum)

2.5 mtpa

n.a.

2015

Source: IEA, Company reports press release
 
Best bet for India

Considering the likely  comfortable supply of shale gas from North America and the likely lower price of natural gas from that region, Government of India has to move forward and  initiate dialogue  with shale gas producers in North America,  for long term supply of gas to India at negotiated price

The present time is opportune, since  the shale gas producers in North America are desperately looking for outlet, as otherwise they will have to curtail production.  India is the most assured potential market for them.

Going a step further, the feasibility of acquiring and owning shale gas wells in North America should be actively  explored  by the Government of India.  Reliance Industries has taken laudable initiative with foresight and  many more such  initiatives are required.

It is gratifying that Narendra  Modi led Gujarat government has gone a step further and is exploring the possibility of   forming joint venture  in Canada to buy shale gas and liquefy it  there by building terminal in Canada, and the liquefied natural gas (LNG)  would  be transported to India .  This would  protect India’s interest  to some extent from the vagaries of gas price fluctuation in North America.

Matter of concern

What is particularly causing concern is that Government of India has not announced any policy measures for managing the Indian energy scenario,  based on the new situation caused by the steep increase in the shale gas production in North America and consequent price fall of natural gas in the near future.  Whatever initiative that has been taken so far  are from the private sector and one state government, with the Government of India not appear to be in the picture at all.

SPOTLIGHT ON SPECIALITY CHEMICAL - ISONONANOL

CAS NO.                27458-94-2

Appearance           Clear, without any visible impurities

Chemical name    Isononyl alcohol

Density    0.8348 g/cm3

Specification

Property

Value

Unit

Isononyl alcohol

min.99.0

% (m/m)

2-EH-ol

max.200

Ppm

Alcohols>C9

max.1

% (m/m)

Colour (APHA, Haxen)

max.10

mg Pt/t

Acid number

max.0.05

mg KOH/g

Water

max.0.1

% by mass

This article discusses the following details :

  •         Applications
  •         Manufacturing process
  •         Producers
  •         Plant closure
  •         Proposed new projects
  •         Import in India
  •         Sample of imports
CHLOROSULFONATED POLYETHYLENE - PRODUCT PROFILE

Characteristic of chlorosulfonated polyethylene

*        Superior ozone resistance and weatherability, even for the formation without carbon black

*        High working temperature up to 140 deg.C

*        Good resistance to many chemicals

*        Moderate resistance to oil and solvent because of chlorine in structure

*        Good flame retardancy

*        Excellent resistance to abrasion and mechanic damage

Specification

Volatile  (Wt % less than)

1.5

1.5

1.5

Chlorine content (Wt %)

33 -37

33 -37

33 -37

Sulphur content (Wt %)

0.8 – 1.2

0.8 – 1.2

0.8 – 1.2

Mooney viscosity (ML 1 + 4100 deg.C

30 - 40

40 – 60

60 – 90

Tensile strength (Mpa more)

25.0

25.0

25.0

Elongati on at break % more

450

450

450

This article discusses the following details

  • Applications
  • Process
  • Producers
  • Plant closure
  • Global market  for chlorosulfonated polyethylene demand
  • Chinese market pattern
ACRYLIC ACID - INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITY

Appearance                     Clear, colorless, corrosive liquid

Molecular formula           C3H4O2

Assay                              99.7%

This article discusses the following details :

*        Application
*        Major derivative products
*        Indian import 
*        Indian manufacturer
*        Plant closure
*        New project in India
*        Indian demand
*        Acrylates
*        Import of  acrylates in India
*        Present Indian demand for acrylic acid:                                    
*        Global supply scenario
*        Global producers
*        New projects
*        Growth rate in demand
*        Global demand
*        Global regional demand
*        Process outline
*        Prognosis

BIO BASED ACRYLIC ACID - RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

Recent developments of  bio based acrylic acid  in the following companies are dicussed in detail

  • BASF, Cargill and Novozymes
  • Myriant begins scaling biobased acrylic acid process
  • OPX Biotechnologies Inc
  • Nippon Shokubai
  • Arkema
FLUIDICS PRINCIPLE TO ENHANCE THE PERFORMANCE OF SOLAR STILL CONDENSER

Dr. Subramanya Krishna Bhat,Bangalore-560 018,Karnataka,India.
E-mail: sk_bhat1818@yahoo.co.in

Solar distillation is an energy and cost effective method for  recycling the used/saline/ brackish water. The device is generally called as solar still. 

In this paper, design concept to enhance the yield and the efficiency of the solar still is discussed.

This article discusses the following details

  • Description of Solar Cell
  • Fluidics principle
  • Methodology
  • Working of SSPSS integrated with MFA
  • Maintenance
  • Conclusions
  • References
CHINA’S CAPACITY UTILISATION ISSUES

For a long time, it has been suggested that because of China’s GDP growth being driven primarily by investment, the end result will inevitably be over-capacity.  This has been rather apparent in some industries such as steel, machinery and others .
  
A recent staff report by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) shows an estimate of capacity utilisation in China. 

image

This article discusses the above subject in detailed manner.

CHINA’S SOLAR COMPANIES IN DISARRAY

Since they were set up in 2005, LDK Solar along with several other Chinese solar panel makers enjoyed heady growth. But ,the picture has changed now .

In recent time, solar panel makers and producers of  poly crystalline silicon in China are facing serious problems due to over capacity and falling demand in Europe and USA.

*        Travail of  solar companies
*        Overcapacity
*        Imposition of tariff in Europe / USA

This article discusses the above subject in detailed manner.

CMM MINING OPPORTUNITIES

Methane recovered from working mines can be grouped under the term CMM, says the World Coal Association (WCA). At present, there are more than 220 CMM projects worldwide in 14 countries.

This article discusses the above subject in detailed manner.

OVERSEAS OFF SHORE PROJECT OF RELIANCE INDUSTRIES

Reliance Industries, which had 12 conventional oil and gas blocks overseas, is left with only seven and this number could go down further. The company acquired its first overseas asset in 2007.

At present, Reliance, through its Reliance Exploration & Production DMCC arm, has seven oil and gas (conventional) overseas blocks.

It has assets in Yemen (two), Peru (two), Australia (one) and Colombia (two). Besides, the company has one uranium exploration block in Australia and shale gas assets in the US.

Reliance has relinquished or exited blocks in East Timor (one), Oman (one), Kurdistan (two), and Yemen (one).

*  Shale gas

This article discusses the above subject in detailed manner

GLOBAL HYDROGEN MARKET - FINDINGS OF THE STUDY

A new study from The Freedonia Group Inc, a US-based Industry market research firm, has projected global demand for hydrogen to increase over 4 per cent annually through 2016 to 286-bn cubic metres valued at $43.2 bn.

The primary driver of this growth is identified as the petroleum refining industry, whose hydrogen consumption is spurred mainly by the production of low-sulphur, cleaner burning fuels.  Though approximately 90 per cent of this consumed hydrogen is captive production liberated by oil re fining processes, the balance is merchant hydrogen, usually generated by steam methane reformers.

This article discusses the following details

*        Clamour for cleaner fuels to drive growth
*        Demand from chemicals
*        Regional demand trends
*        World hydrogen demand

LNG EXPORT PLANTS IN USA

Cheniere Energy is building a $5.6 billion LNG project in Sabine Pass, Louisiana. The project, expected to be ready by 2015, will be the United States’ first LNG export plant since 1969.

This article discusses the above subject in detailed manner.

ETHANOL PRODUCTION IN USA

The United Nations  has called for an immediate suspension of government-mandated US ethanol production.
An immediate, temporary suspension of the [ethanol] mandate would give some respite to the market and allow more of the crop to be channelled towards food and feed uses.

This article discusses the above subject in detailed manner.

A NEW OXIDANT IN THE ATMOSPHERE IDENTIFIED

Scientists have for the first time found unequivocal evidence of another oxidant playing a vital role in the formation of gaseous sulphuric acid in the atmosphere. Until now, it was thought that the combination of OH (hydroxyl radical) oxidant with sulphur dioxide (SO2) was the dominant way by which gaseous sulphuric acid is formed in the atmosphere. The results were published on August 9, 2012 in Nature.

This article discusses the above subject in detailed manner.

OTHER FEATURES

ANTI DUMPING PAGE

The antidumping measures introduced in  the various countries in the last few weeks on the following products are discussed:

*        Carbon black 
*        Soda ash
*        Acetone 
*        Sulfamethoxazole 
*        Nonyl phenol

SAFETY AND ACCIDENT PAGE

Following safety and accident details are discussed

*        Major fire at INDCO tea factory, Tamil Nadu
*        Fire in power plant at Tuticorin
*        Gas explosion in Venezuela refinery
NEWS ROUND UP - INTERNATIONAL
The recent developments on the following products/events are discussed

*        Activated carbon 
*        Butadiene 
*        Cellulosic ethanol 
*        Biopropylene glycol plant in Belgium
*        PVDF 
*        Lithium 
*        Cellulosic isobutanol
*        Methane recovery facility in U.S.
*        Sulfuric acid upgrade
*        Polylactic acid
NEWS ROUND UP - INDIA

The recent developments on the following products/events are discussed

*        Ethanol blending programme  in Tamil Nadu
*        Butene-1 Technology
*        BPCL’s subsidiary strikes oil and gas in Tamil Nadu

CHINA NEWS

PLANS OF SHELL  IN CHINA

Royla Dutch Shell is one of the biggest investors in China's energy sector. Shell is a major supplier of liquefied natural gas to China, securing gas from its global fields including in Australia and Qatar. LNG is super chilled gas for shipping in tankers.

Shell has lined up China National Petroleum Corp, China’s top energy group and parent of PetroChina, as its partner for both shale gas and the Taizhou refinery project.CNPC, through PetroChina, produces some 60 percent of China's crude oil and nearly three-quarters of its natural gas.

Following  details are discussed in this article

*        Coal bed methane
*        Investment in shale gas
*        Petrochemical complex
*        Fuel retailing
The recent developments on the following products/events are updated :

*        New gas production plant in Wu’an, North China
*        Phenol-acetone project
*        Ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer
*        n-Butane Project
*        NBR  plant 
*        Polypropylene 
*        Acrylic acid 
*        Dimethyl sulphoxide
*        SBR 
*        Ethephon project

ENERGY PAGE
Offshore wind potential in Tamil Nadu

Tamil Nadu has 7,055 MW of wind power capacity, or about 40 per cent of all wind power capacity in the entire country.

In 2011-12, the wind mills in Tamil Nadu produced 9.7 billion units, accounting for 13 per cent of all the energy fed into the grid.

*        Wind monitoring masses
*        Evacuation infrastructure
*        Wind power corridor
*        Request for grant

This article discusses the above subject in detailed manner.

The recent developments on the following events are highlighted 
*  Purchase of LNG by GAIL

OTHER ARTICLES

* Environmental Page

* WHO Sets Standards For Melamine In Milk

* Price Details

* Butadiene

* Price Trends In China (August 2012)

* Tenders

* Chemicals Imported At The Chennai Port During The Month Of June 2012

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